The thoracic spine (located between the cervical and lumbar spines) is your middle back, beginning right below your neck and ending at your low back. The main function of the thoracic spine is to anchor the rib cage and protect the spinal cord, heart and lungs. It is the longest and most complex region of the spine; made up of 12 vertebral bodies that hold disks (T1-T12). T1 connects with the cervical spine above at C7 and T12 with the lumbar spine below at L1.
Interestingly, the space between disks (intervertebral opening) is much larger in the thoracic spine as compared to both the cervical and lumbar spines. A bigger intervertebral opening and smaller nerve root allows more room for spinal nerves and reduces the chance of the nerve becoming pinched or inflamed. Recent research suggests this might be the reason disk degeneration of the thoracic spine is much less likely to cause pain or other symptoms, unless of course the degeneration causes a disk to push on a nerve. There are several other causes of thoracic spine pain.
Myofascial pain (muscular in nature) can be caused by poor posture, or any irritation of the large back or shoulder muscles, which would include strains or spasms. Joint dysfunction, thoracic herniated disk, compression fracture, kyphosis, scoliosis, arthritis or osteoporosis can also cause pain.
Symptoms of nerve damage in the thoracic spine include: