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1/24/2013 in Medical Conditions
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (RSDS) is medically defined as a “rare” disorder. Yet, it has recently become a common claim following litigated injuries. Claims of this disorder are increasing faster than medical technology, making the job of claims handlers—and litigators alike—extremely difficult. Unfortunately, RSDS can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are mostly subjective in nature. As a result, few doctors are experienced in treating the syndrome. Doctors need to know more about RSDS to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment. Claims handlers need to be informed about RSDS to have successful claim management.DEFINITIONRSDS is a rare disorder of the sympathetic nervous system, which regulates involuntary bodily functions. It can increase heart rate and blood pressure. It can also constrict blood vessels. RSDS can also be referred to as: Algodystrophy, Algoneurodystrophy, Causalgia Syndrome (Major), Reflex Neurovascular Dystrophy, Sudeck's Atrophy, or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Claims handlers and doctors should be familiar with this terminology.SIGNS & SYMPTOMSUsually, RSDS clinically progresses through three stages--acute, dystrophic, and atrophic. Each stage lasts from three to six months. RSDS symptoms begin with burning pain in the arm(s), finger(s), palm(s) and/or shoulder(s). The skin over the affected area(s) may become swollen (edema) and inflamed. Affected skin may be extremely sensitive to touch and sensitive to hot or cold temperatures (cutaneous hypersensitivity). The affected limb(s) may perspire excessively and be warm to the touch (vasomotor instability). In some individuals, RSDS may occur in one or both legs or it may be localized to one knee or hip. TREATMENTThe most widely used therapy for the condition has been cervical or lumbar paravertebral sympathetic blockade with anesthetics such as mepivacaine or bupivacaine. The pain relief may be dramatic, with a duration outlasting the action of the anesthetic. Several regional blockade procedures have been developed using a modified Bier block. The administration of corticosteroids has also been advocated. Another therapy for this disorder is therapeutic exercise and hand conditioning. A coordinated multidisciplinary approach to treatment seems to work best.REASONS TO GET AN IME FOR RSDS CASESCausation: The exact cause of RSDS is not fully understood, although it may be associated with injury to the nerves, trauma, surgery, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, infection or radiation therapy. It can occur following sprain, fracture, or injury to nerves or blood vessels, particularly in the extremities. As a result, a neurologist familiar with RSDS will understand appropriate signs and symptoms and should be able to confirm the diagnosis Save Treatment Dollars: Frequently, RSDS may go undiagnosed. It can also be misdiagnosed as a painful nerve injury. Therefore, a neurologist who has had experience in diagnosing and treating the disease can save significant treatment dollars.Permanence: Diagnosis is important in determining treatment. However, in one large study, 60% of patients had continuing pain regardless of treatment. The pain may be excruciating, resulting in dramatic physical and psychological alterations. An experienced neurologist, who is familiar with RSDS, will be able to diagnose and recommend appropriate treatment.Medical Systems, Inc. offers several neurologists familiar with the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of RSDS. Call: 800-261-3278 to schedule.
Scheduling an IME for every "lost time" claim is a controversial approach to claims management. However, this strategy is becoming increasingly accepted by claims handlers for one very important reason: cost containment. An IME quickly identifies misuses of the system by both worker and health care provider. Another factor contributing to lack of cost containment is medical management. The claims handler often utilizes medical management services for the very reasons an IME is eventually obtained. A more cost effective approach would be to obtain an independent medical evaluation before referring to medical management services. Statistics show an IME temporizes treatment and claims are closed at a faster rate.
12/21/2012 in Treatment
In today’s competitive climate of rising costs and shrinking profit margins, an increasing number of businesses are looking for ways to ensure a healthy bottom line. The rising cost of Worker’s Compensation claims, as well as the direct and indirect cost of job-related injuries, is being closely scrutinized.One way to control costs is to develop a comprehensive approach to reducing and treating injuries, and an effective method for treating injured workers is the use of professional physical therapy services.PHYSICAL THERAPY IS A DISTINCT PROFESSIONThe physical therapy profession is a distinct entity within the allied health professions. The physical therapist is a licensed trained professional who plans and administers a physical therapy plan of care for medically referred patients in need of physical therapy services.USED TO TREAT MOVEMENT DYSFUNCTIONThe role physical therapy plays in workers’ rehabilitation is primarily in the assessment and management of movement dysfunction. Physical therapists work to restore the functional abilities of individuals who are either permanently or temporarily disabled due to illness, disease, trauma, or congenital abnormalities. In addition to their role as clinicians, physical therapists may serve as educators, consultants, and researchers.MAJOR OBJECTIVESThe major objectives of physical therapy are:• Prevention and relief of disability and pain;• Preservation or restoration of maximal functional capabilities;• Promotion of healing; and• Adaptation to temporary or permanent disability.EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL AGENTS USEDThe field of physical therapy typically uses exercise and physical agents such as heat, light, water, and massage to relieve pain caused by surgery or by chronic medical conditions, improve muscle strength and mobility, and improve basic functions (standing, walking, and grasping) in patients recovering from debilitating illness or accidents, or for those who are physically handicapped.The physical therapist selects specific rehabilitative treatments based on the patient’s individual medical condition. Heat may be applied to ease stiffening and joint pain. The heat source may be a hot bath, compresses, heat-creating lamps, or ultrasound waves which generate heat in tissues that are too deep to be reached by external heat applications. Massage is a standard physiotherapeutic technique, both for easing pain and for improving circulation. Hydrotherapy is useful in rebuilding injured or wasted muscles.The most frequent type of physical therapy treatment, however, is exercise, carefully chosen to increase joint mobility or to improve muscle strength and coordination.Patients with physical handicaps may be trained to learn or relearn elementary motor functions, such as holding a spoon or turning a doorknob, or they may be taught how to use crutches, prosthetic devices, or other mechanical aids. The work of physical therapists is often closely coordinated with that of the occupational therapist, since both fields involve training patients to improve their motor abilities.INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH EFFECTIVEThe physical therapist often works in tandem with other medical professionals, to more completely evaluate a patient’s condition from a medical, behavioral, functional and ergonomic perspective. This interdisciplinary approach is an effective way to clearly define the problems which are preventing an expedient or eventual return to work. Once these issues are appropriately addressed and managed, the ultimate goal of improved quality of life for the injured person, as well as reduced Worker’s Compensation costs for the employer can be realized.For more information please visit www.MedicalSystemsUSA.com

Definition:Deception is to intentionally distort the truth in order to mislead others. There are two classes of deception: concealing the truth (dissimulates or gloss over) and exhibiting false information (simulate). Malingering is intentional production of false or exaggerated symptoms motivated by external incentives, such as obtaining compensation or drugs, avoiding work or military duty, or evading criminal prosecution. Signs of Malingering:Malingering can be strongly suspected in the presence of any combination of the following occurrences:-Marked discrepancy between the claimed distress and the objective findings-Lack of cooperation during evaluation and in complying with prescribed treatment-Presence of an antisocial personality disorderMalingering often is associated with an antisocial personality disorder and a histrionic personality style. Prolonged direct observation can reveal evidence of malingering because it is difficult for the person who is malingering to maintain consistency with the false or exaggerated claims for extended periods.The person who is malingering usually lacks knowledge of the nuances of the feigned disorder. For example, someone complaining of carpal tunnel syndrome may be referred to occupational therapy, where the person who is malingering would be unable to predict the effect of true carpal tunnel syndrome on tasks in the wood shop.Prolonged interview and examination of a person suspected of a malingering disorder may induce fatigue and diminish the ability of the person who is malingering to maintain the deception. Rapid firing of questions increases the likelihood of contradictory or inconsistent responses. Asking leading questions may induce the person to endorse symptoms of a different illness. Questions about improbable symptoms may yield positive responses. However, because some of these techniques may induce similar responses in some patients with genuine psychiatric disorders, caution should be exercised in reaching a conclusion of malingering.Persons malingering psychotic disorders often exaggerate hallucinations and delusions but cannot mimic formal thought disorders. They usually cannot feign blunted affect, concrete thinking, or impaired interpersonal relatedness. They frequently assume that dense amnesia and disorientation are features of psychosis. It should be noted that these descriptions also may apply to some patients with genuine psychiatric disorders. For example, individuals with a delusional disorder can have unshakable beliefs and bizarre ideas without formal thought disorder.Physical Examination:Typically, deficits on physical examination do not follow known anatomical distributions. A patient's attitude toward the examining physician often is vague or evasive.Concerns:The time, energy, and financial commitment created by malingering individuals is an appreciable problem in health care. Whether the goal is to obtain narcotics, to obtain time off from work and/or to secure financial benefits such as disability payment, the costs to the health care delivery system have proved enormous. For more information visit www.MedicalSystemsUSA.com

11/30/2012 in Medical Conditions, Treatment
Numerous “red flags” can be found associated with increased incidences of delayed recovery following a compensable injury.1. Receipt of compensation for a past injury.2. Medical visits increased prior to accident.3. Frequently canceled medical appointments.4. Reports of having “had the feeling of impending doom” prior to the accident and/or nightmares about the accident.5. High absentee rate before the injury.6. A history of doctor “shopping”.7. Reluctance to cooperate with treatment.8. Pending litigation.9. Inconsistent or non-organic physical findings.10. History of alcoholism or drug abuse.11. Evidence indicating early dependency needs were not met (history of starting work at a very young age or by being a later born child in a large family).12. Family history of disability.13. Recently divorced or other recent crisis.14. Physical disability disproportionate to injury.15. Demonstrating concerns about ability to continue working or inadequate retirement savings in older workers.If present, these factors do not necessarily indicate a claimant will suffer from delayed recovery but suggest a higher risk, and these claims should be followed more closely.For more information please visit www.MedicalSystemsUSA.com
The reported incidence of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome has skyrocketed; however, many cases have an underlying systemic cause. A methodical investigation--including appropriate imaging studies and laboratory testing--can differentiate symptoms that are primarily occupational from those with associated medical illness or obesity. Syndrome DefinedA syndrome is a constellation of signs and symptoms useful in establishing a differential diagnosis and pointing the physician in the direction of an appropriate management plan. In the case of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), however, this definition is often forgotten. Indeed, clinical features suggestive of median nerve entrapment are often managed as a single entity that is assumed to have a clear, recognized etiology. Exhaustive research by George S. Phalen in the 1950s and 1960s, and others since then, has demonstrated that many common systemic conditions (e.g., diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis of the wrist, gout, obesity, and even pregnancy) may provoke symptoms of hand pain, numbness, burning, or tingling with or without the additional impact of work-related trauma. Yet in today's medical climate, there is often a rush to judgment. Patients presenting with hand symptoms may be incorrectly diagnosed as having CTS caused by conditions in the workplace. Claims SkyrocketingSince 1985, when the U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) accepted that there were "traumatogens" in the workplace and demanded that repetitive motion disorders be reported, the recorded incidence of cumulative trauma disorders has skyrocketed. About 277,000 cases were reported in 1997, compared with fewer than 50,000 in 1985.CTS has been the fastest growing category, recently accounting for more than 40% of all work-related disabilities. An estimated 26,000 CTS patients in the United States undergo surgical decompression each year. Median time lost from work is about 32 days per patient, more than for any other cause, including back pain. Why so Much Lost Time?Undoubtedly, one reason why so much work time is lost is that treatment is often unsuccessful. Many patients either do not have CTS or have CTS as part of another, undiagnosed medical condition that accounts for most of the problem. The underlying condition usually is never addressed, largely because our workers' compensation system provides such powerful incentives for declaring any median nerve disorder to be job-related. In Nevada, for example, even a successfully treated case of occupational CTS may merit a permanent partial disability award of $25,000 or more. Since many patients presenting with hand symptoms are poorly paid factory or farm workers with no group health insurance, workers' compensation may represent their only hope of getting treatment. Consequently, the patient may file a claim even when the physician suspects that the real problem lies elsewhere. Patients who do not respond to basic measures such as splinting and anti-inflammatory medication ultimately may undergo decompression surgery--at considerable expense to employers and taxpayers. Causation IssuesFollowing on the work of Phalen, a number of investigators have suggested that occupation is more likely to be an aggravating factor than the primary cause of CTS.  When Peter A. Nathan and Richard C. Keniston studied cohorts of workers' compensation patients, industrial workers, and control populations in both the US and in both the United States and Japan, they found that variables such as age, obesity, wrist dimensions, and physical inactivity were stronger risk factors for CTS than workplace factors such as repetitious or forceful hand use.John R. Schottland and colleagues determined that median nerve conduction latencies were no different among poultry processing workers than among candidates applying for their same type of jobs. Nortin M. Hadler surveyed the world literature on the subject and concluded that all of the major studies describing a cause-and-effect relationship between work and CTS were seriously flawed.  These are many compelling reasons to question the validity of a CTS diagnosis being attributed to work related causes. For more information visit www.MedicalSystemsUSA.com
11/17/2012 in News
CDATA[Injured workers should know what rights they have and what limitations claims handlers have with regard to their claim of injury.  Many appropriate resources are available through the internet to assist injured workers with their Worker’s Compensation injury claim by providing information that is nonbiased and beneficial for all parties involved. The Department of Workforce Development provides information on their website which guides workers through the process.  This information is provided in a question and answer format and can be helpful to someone not familiar with the system. One can find information on filing a claim, the flow of a claim, returning to work, vocational resources available, claim denial, what to expect at a hearing, finding the employer’s worker’s compensation carrier,  and the rights and responsibilities of the injured worker. It is the best site our research has found to provide nonbiased information concerning an injured worker’s rights and responsibilities under Wisconsin Worker’s Compensation and can be found at the following address:  http://www.dwd.state.wi.us/wc/default.htm. Another good internet resource is the Wisconsin State Law Library at http://wsll.state.wi.us/topic/laborlaw/workerscomp.html.  This site contains a wealth of information on Wisconsin Worker’s Compensation geared to educate employees and employers alike in a nonbiased way through providing factual information about the Worker’s Compensation system.  It contains links to various sites, which direct to the Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development, the Wisconsin Office of the Commissioner of Insurance, and links to various Worker’s Compensation statutes and administrative codes.Workerscompensation.com provides Worker’s Compensation information, news, and contact information for employees, employers, insurers and medical providers.  On this site, rules, statutes, forms and professional help relate to workplace injuries and disabilities in the state of Wisconsin. Findlaw.com is also another resource for injured workers looking to obtain information about Worker’s Compensation.  The site provides an overview of Worker’s Compensation, benefits and returning to work, employer’s responsibilities and a frequently asked questions section. While the information provided on the site is great educational information, the goal of this website is to ultimately refer the injured worker to an attorney who can handle their case. All of these sites provide good information for an employee looking to obtain a solid education about the Wisconsin Worker’s Compensation system and their rights and responsibilities under Worker’s Compensation statutes and administrative codes. A multitude of websites are geared toward the topic of Worker’s Compensation, however many do not pertain to Wisconsin or Wisconsin law.  Additionally, it is sometimes difficult to navigate through information geared to assist employees versus information geared toward employers.  Certainly the majority of information provided on the internet for injured workers is geared to sell them a service.FOOD FOR THOUGHT:  It may be that many injured workers retain attorneys because they lack the necessary knowledge of the Worker’s Compensation system to confidently navigate themselves through the system.  Knowledge of the system and how it operates may actually serve to cost-effectively settle Worker’s Compensation claims.This knowledge can be a powerful tool in the quick resolution of claims.  It has been statistically proven that IME’s can help temper claims, closing them at a faster pace; but the knowledge in this scenario is often obtained on behalf of the employer/insurer.  It would be interesting to know what effect increased knowledge on behalf of the employee would have on the system. For more information please visit http://www.medicalsystemsusa.com
The ProblemThe incidence of low back and neck pain is pervasive throughout society and represents a major reason for time lost from work, costing the American economy billions of dollars per year between medical care, lost wages, and benefits. Most of these lost resources are utilized by a small minority of patients. Lost time due to occupational back injuries represents a challenge to the medical industry, and the insurance world to provide early, effective treatment. The proper approach is to provide cost effective care while improving the quality of patient care and facilitating a successful and quick return to activity by the patient.BackgroundMany patients with back problems seek early care with their primary care physician or medical generalist rather than enlisting the assistance of a spine specialist.  As a result, these patients are frequently treated symptomatically without the benefit of a defined algorithm for effective testing and treating. Studies such as MRI’s are frequently ordered when unnecessary, and patients can go weeks or months before a proper diagnosis is derived and appropriate treatment initiated.This approach is counterproductive in an industrial setting where the injured worker has a propensity for further injury and extended lost time from work, without effective care.GoalsThe goal for treatment in work related spinal injuries is to provide early intervention that identifies an accurate working diagnosis and is coupled with effective treatment modalities.  The evaluation of the patient must involve the use of established algorithms ordering tests only when necessary and avoiding wasteful testing that is not medically necessary, and does not alter the course of early treatment. Early control of pain along with effective mobilization of the patient through aggressive physical therapy provides the most effective means to quickly return patients to the work place.The ultimate goal is to return the patient to their previous level of function in society. Although it is not always possible to provide 100% resolution of the problem, it is possible to maximize one’s functional capabilities through pain control and aggressive rehabilitation. It is a well-documented fact that extended time lost from work decreases the likelihood of a successful return to the workplace.Types of Injuries and TreatmentThe overwhelming majority of injuries in the work place involve simple strains and strain type syndromes. These represent simple soft tissue related injuries that are time limited in scope and do not represent long term injuries. They are easily and effectively treated with proper early intervention. This includes interruption of the pain cycle while encouraging progressive activity levels to effectively and quickly return patients to the work place. This approach typically involves the prudent use of anti-inflammatory medication in conjunction with aggressive back reconditioning, streaming function, and strengthening.All too frequently, patients are placed on extended courses of passive modalities, which leads to extended time lost from work with further rehabilitation of the patient. Some patients develop disc related injuries, most typically a herniated disc. Most disc herniations can be treated nonoperatively and frequently improve in a period of 46 weeks. Treatment modalities again include the prudent use of medication, effective rehabilitation, and injection therapy for the control of pain. The only indication for emergent surgery involves progressive neurologic deficits.  In a select group of patients, comprehensive nonoperative treatment fails requiring surgical intervention.The advent of microsurgical procedures of the spine represents a major advance for the treatment of herniated discs. This is typically undertaken as an outpatient procedure with early mobilization of the patient, facilitating early active rehabilitation. Patients typically are successfully returned to work in a limited capacity soon after surgery with improved long term results. The combination of outpatient surgery coupled with early aggressive rehabilitation results in significant cost savings to the carrier.Failed Back SurgerySurgery should only be undertaken when there is effective correlation between a patient’s complaints, physical examination, and imaging studies. The absence of complete correlation of all factors significantly decreases the likelihood of a successful surgical outcome. Failed back surgery represents a major proportion of expense in the treatment of work related injuries.  The greatest likelihood of success is with the initial procedure. Revision spine surgery holds a more guarded prognosis and should only be undertaken by those who are highly trained in this more demanding procedure.RehabilitationEarly mobilization of the patient in conjunction with control of pain represents the cornerstone of treatment. The initial step is to obtain a pain free range of motion followed by back strengthening and reconditioning. The goal is to ultimately return the patient to prior functional levels and minimize the likelihood of recurrent injuries.ConclusionThe effective treatment of back related injuries involves the coordination of care by a spinal specialist trained in the effective diagnosis and treatment of spine related injuries. Early intervention resulting in an accurate working diagnosis, coupled with well-trained academic decision making, is the most effective way to return patients to their pre-injury level of function.Coordination of care with the case manager, clinical specialist, and employer is mandatory for a successful outcome. If things are not working within the timeframe originally projected, or there are other unresolved issues pushing end of healing out further than expected, an IME may be indicated. For more information please visit www.MedicalSystemsUSA.com
The meniscus is a half-moon shaped piece of cartilage that lies between the weight bearing joint surfaces of the femur and the tibia. It is triangular in cross section and is attached to the lining of the knee joint along its periphery. There are two menisci in a normal knee; the outside one is called the lateral meniscus, the inner one the medial meniscus.   The menisci play an important role in absorbing about a third of the impact load that the joint cartilage surface sees. It's been shown that complete removal of a meniscus can result in progressive arthritis in the joint within a decade or so in a younger patient, and sooner in patients who are older with preexisting "wear-and-tear" osteoarthritis. The menisci also cup the joint surfaces of the femur and therefore provide some degree of stabilization to the knee.The two different mechanisms for tearing a meniscus are traumatic and degenerative.Traumatic tears result from a sudden load being applied to the meniscal tissue which is severe enough to cause the meniscal cartilage to fail and let go. These usually occur from a twisting injury or a blow to the side of the knee that causes the meniscus to be levered against and compressed. A football clipping injury or a fall backwards onto the heel with rotation of the lower leg are common examples of this injury pattern. In a person under 30 years of age this typically requires a fairly violent injury although any age group can sustain a traumatic tear.Degenerative meniscal tears are best thought of as a failure of the meniscus over time. There is a natural drying-out of the inner center of the meniscus that can begin in the late 20's and progresses with age. The meniscus becomes less elastic and compliant and as a result may fail with only minimal trauma (such as just getting down into a squat). Sometimes there are no memorable injuries or violent events which can be blamed as the cause of the tear. The association of these tears with aging makes degenerative tears almost unheard of in a teenager. A torn meniscus will usually cause pain on the side of the knee that is localized to the meniscus (at the level of the joint line between the femur and tibia). Swelling of the joint may occur although meniscal tears by themselves usually don't cause a large, tensely swollen knee. Typically low-level swelling sets in the next day after the injury and is associated with stiffness and limping.Sometimes the knee becomes "locked" in a bent position and is quite painful with attempts to straighten it. This scenario is often caused by the mechanical blockage of the joint from a displaced bucket handle type meniscal tear. The torn fragment actually acts like a wedge to prevent the joint surfaces from moving, hence the knee appears locked.Any twisting, squatting or impacting activities will pinch the meniscus tear or flap and cause pain. Often the pain may improve with rest after the initial injury so that the limping resolves but as soon as aggressive activity is attempted the pain recurs. Meniscal tissue doesn't heal (with the exception noted above) due to its lack of a blood supply so symptoms are persistent until the tear is treated.The diagnosis of a tear is made based on the history and joint line findings. A physician can often stress and manipulate the knee joint in a way that provokes the meniscal tear to snap or cause pain which makes the diagnosis likely. Other times an MRI scan will be obtained to visualize the meniscus and assess its integrity. A good MRI scanner has a very high accuracy rate in determining if a tear is present.Once a meniscal tear has been diagnosed it should be treated. This doesn't have to be done urgently although patients with a painful locked knee may want surgery as soon as scheduling permits. Arthroscopic surgery is the only way to treat the tear since there are currently no medications, braces, or physical therapy treatments that have been shown to promote healing in the avascular tears.Following surgical repair, weight bearing is not permitted for about 3 weeks.  Once weight bearing has begun the knee is gradually and progressively conditioned with a supervised physical therapy program. Maximal weight training is not allowed for 2-3 months. Return to running and agility sports is permitted after 3-4 months if strength and motion have returned and pain in the joint is no longer present.Recovery from removal of a meniscal tear is much quicker and requires the use of crutches for longer walks only until the patient can walk without limping (typically 5-7 days). With a proper rehabilitation program one can usually expect to be back in sports within 4-6 weeks after the meniscectomy.visit www.MedicalSystemsUSA.com to learn more
When is it more appropriate to refer a case to a neuropsychiatrist and when should the case go to a neuropsychologist?  By definition, the word “neuro” (nerve) leads one to believe that the most common condition treated by both specialties is brain disorder or injury.  Not only do the two specialties sound similar in name, neuropsychologists often work together with neuropsychiatrists in the assessment and treatment of brain injuries or disorders, causing even further confusion between the two specialties.Simply put, Neuropsychiatrists are medical doctors, who are able to prescribe medications.  They assess and treat psychiatric symptoms associated with brain dysfunction or lesions.  These lesions may include conditions such as traumatic brain injury, cerebral vascular disease, seizure disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, brain tumors, alcohol/other substance abuse induced organic mental disorders, developmental disorders involving the brain, as well as infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system.  Neuropsychiatrists can provide information concerning the usefulness of specific medications, the development of an effective treatment plan, appropriate work restrictions, expected healing plateau issues, and determining a diagnosis(es).Conversely, neuropsychologists cannot prescribe medications and possess an advanced doctoral degree referred to as a Ph.D. or Psy.D. They assess the relationship between brain and behavior and utilize psychological tests and assessment techniques to determine the extent of any possible behavioral deficits following a brain injury.Neuropsychologists, in an evaluation setting, can provide valuable data in the measurement of extent of brain injuries or disorders through extensive psychological testing and assessment. Neuropsychologists can identify the extent of psychological involvement and provide a diagnosis(es), as well as the determine work restrictions and permanent partial disability.While both specialties may be equally qualified to evaluate brain injuries, the specialty you choose should depend on the individual merits of your case.For more information please contact info@MedicalSystemsUSA or visit our website at www.MedicalSystemsUSA.com

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