The Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Divided into two hemispheres, the outermost layer, the cerebral cortex, has four lobes:
The Cerebellum is located behind the top part of the brain stem where the spinal cord meets the brain and is made up of two hemispheres. It receives information from the sensory systems, spinal cord and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movement. The cerebellum coordinates voluntary movement such as balance, coordination, posture, and speech, resulting in smooth and balanced muscular activity.
The Brainstem lies underneath and behind the cerebellum. It controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body. The brainstem also controls basic bodily functions such as breathing, swallowing, heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, and state of sleepiness.
Surveillance can be a good way to move a case to closure. The success of the investigation depends on both the adjuster and the investigator’s ability to gather accurate and reliable information. Arm your investigator with as much information as you can provide. Here are some tips to assure effective surveillance:
For every 6 million occupants in Low Speed Rear Impact Collisions:
Information provided by the Spine Research Institute of San Diego
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome is to the foot and ankle as what carpal tunnel syndrome is to the wrist and hand. Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome occurs when the posterior tibial nerve (running along the ankle and foot) becomes compressed or damaged, causing inflammation of the tarsal tunnel. This condition results from prolonged walking, running, standing or exercising, traumatic injury, or no apparent reason.
Often Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome responds well to conservative treatment. With the goal of treatment being to reduce inflammation and pain, rest, ice, compression and elevation are often recommended along with the use of over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (acetaminophen or ibuprofen). If this is not effective, injection therapy using corticosteroids and local anesthetics can be tried. Orthopedic devices and corrective shoes may assist in reducing foot pressure. Exercises learned in physical therapy can help reduce symptoms by stretching and strengthening connective tissues and mobilizing the tibial nerve and opening surrounding joint space reducing compression.
Surgery can be performed for severe or chronic cases that do not respond to any other forms of treatment. The procedure releases (or decompresses) the tarsal tunnel with a recovery period of 6 weeks up to several months. Surgery is successful in about 50%-90% of cases.
Fortunately, tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare disorder.
There are several areas of research that may prove successful; stem cell injections, a Collagen Meniscal Implant (CMI), and 3-D research.
In a clinical trial of stem cell injections for meniscal tears, only 15% of participants experienced an increase in meniscal tissue at one year following treatment. This could be because without healthy cartilage to pad the bones that meet in the knee joint, the bones become battered and misshapen and a new meniscus can’t fix that damage. So, it would make sense to try stem cell medicine on people with new injuries who do not have the damage to their bones.
The Collagen Meniscal Implant, a biological completely absorbable implant made from highly purified collagen with a porous structure showed some promise. This device is attached arthroscopically to fill the void resulting for damaged or lost meniscal tissue and makes use of the body’s own ability to re-populate the structure with its own cells over time to regenerate the normal structure of the meniscus. There is data showing benefit in chronic meniscal injuries for the right patient.
In a study successfully conducted on sheep, a meniscus was regenerated with a 3-D printer, infused with human growth factors that prompt the body to regenerate the lining on its own. It begins with MRI scans of the intact meniscus in the undamaged knee. The scans are converted into a 3-D image which is used to drive a 3-D printer. A scaffold in the exact shape of the meniscus down to a resolution of 10 microns (less than the width of a human hair) is produced within 30 minutes. This research is preliminary but it demonstrates potential for meniscus regeneration.
However, the reality is at present there’s little that orthopedists can do to regenerate a torn knee meniscus. Small tears can be sewn back in place, but larger tears have to be surgically removed which helps with pain and swelling, but leaves the knee without its natural shock absorber. There are three viable options on the horizon, but they are still in the research stages and it could be years before they are offered to the general population.
The best way to obtain a good recorded statement is to have a predetermined process for planning and preparation of the interview. Here are some tips to conduct a thorough interview:
The success of the investigation depends on the adjuster’s ability to gather accurate and reliable information.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be injured as a result of getting hit very hard on the side of the knee, overextend injury to the knee, or landing from a jump incorrectly. Symptoms include a “popping” sound heard at time of injury, swelling within 6 hours, and pain. A mild injury may only result in a feeling of instability of the knee or it seems to “give way” when using it.
ACL injury can sometimes be diagnosed during a physical exam alone, but diagnostic testing may be required to rule out other causes and determine the severity of the injury. Tests could include x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or ultrasound.
Initial treatment is aimed at reducing pain and swelling, with rest, ice, compression and elevation. Several weeks of rehabilitation can be expected, with a physical therapist initially teaching exercises which can be performed with continued supervision and/or at home. A brace can stabilize the knee and possible crutches to avoid weight bearing. The goal is to restore full range of motion and strengthen the knee.
Surgical repair could be recommended if more than one ligament or the cartilage of the knee is injured, the claimant is young and active, and/or the injury is causing the knee to buckle. The procedure, an ACL reconstruction, involves removing damaged ligaments and replacing with a segment of tendon. After surgery, rehabilitation takes place to restore strength, stability and function to the knee.
There is a revolutionary new procedure, called BEAR (Bridge-Enhanced ACL Repair) that is currently in testing stages. A “bridge” is surgically inserted into the ACL which allows the ACL ends to heal back together themselves. So far, the procedure when tested in pigs showed significantly less arthritis (a complication of ACL injuries). Three months after surgery on the first human trials, all BEAR recipients had healing ACLs, flexibility close to that of the healthy knee, and recovered strength more quickly than the traditional ACL repair. While more testing is needed, this new procedure appears to show extreme promise.
Meniscus tears are one of the most common knee injuries. That’s because an athlete, an older person and anyone in between can tear a meniscus.
They can be torn in different ways. Tears are described by how they look as well as where the tear occurs. Common tears include bucket handle, flap and radial. Sports related tears often include more than just the meniscus (such as an anterior cruciate ligament tear).
A meniscus tear is diagnosed by obtaining a medical history, discussing symptoms, and examination of the knee. One of the main tests for meniscus tears is the McMurray test. The doctor bends the knee, straightens it and then rotates it. This puts tension on a torn meniscus and will cause a clicking sound. Imaging tests, such as x-ray or MRI may be ordered as well.
Treatment depends on the type of tear, size and location. The outside one-third of the meniscus has a rich blood supply which may allow it to heal on its own. The inner two-thirds of the meniscus lacks a blood supply which does not allow it to heal. These are complex tears which often occur in thin, worn cartilage. These types of tears usually require surgery.
Without treatment a piece of meniscus may come loose and drift into the joint. This can cause the knee to slip, pop or lock.
Since meniscus tears are extremely common knee injuries, proper diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation often returns patients to their pre-injury abilities.
Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain. It occurs when the thick band of tissue that runs across the bottom of the foot and connects the heel bone to the toes gets inflamed. Symptoms include a stabbing pain at the bottom of the foot near the heel. It generally occurs when you haven’t walked for a while, such as first thing in the morning. As more movement of the foot occurs through walking the pain normally decreases but could return after long periods of standing or upon rising from a seated position.
Plantar fasciitis is common in persons between the ages of 40-60 but can be brought about at any age with certain types of exercise, such as running, jumping, ballet dancing, aerobic dance. Plantar fasciitis can also be the result of anatomic deviations from normal, such as being flat footed, a high arch, or an abnormal walking pattern. Obesity is also known to put extra stress on the plantar fascia. Occupations which involve mostly standing can also damage the plantar fascia leading to plantar fasciitis.
Plantar Fasciitis is tough to treat. Often times treatment takes several months. Rest, ice, and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help reduce inflammation and pain. If pain isn’t responding to NSAIDs, a steroid injection can ease pain for about a month and will keep inflammation down for even longer. Physical therapy might be recommended if none of the other modes of treatment worked. From this point forward, treatment gets more aggressive.
Shock-wave therapy, where sound waves literally “shock” the plantar fascia to stimulate blood flow and help tissue to heal; pain is stopped from the stunning affect it has on the nerves.
Tenex procedure, like an “arthroscopy” of the foot there is a small incision and an ultrasound is used to target and remove scar tissue. Life gets back to normal in as little as 10 days.
The last resort is surgery, where the plantar fascia is removed from the heal bone. Although this can be done as an outpatient, healing takes longer with the use of a splint or boot and no weight bearing, then limited weight bearing and things will hopefully progress to unrestricted weight bearing.
Plantar fasciitis is a common condition that is difficult to treat and can have a long healing period. Time away from work can easily cost employers thousands in lost time and treatment bills for just one employee. Encouraging healthy habits can lessen the incidence of plantar fasciitis in the workplace, which in turn can lower the cost of lost time and treatment. Examples of healthy practices include:
Proactive involvement in prevention can cost little as compared to what it saves.
The meniscus is often described as the knee’s “shock absorbers.” That’s because they are a piece of cartilage providing a cushion between the thigh bone (femur) and shin bone (tibia). Each knee joint has two menisci. Their purpose is to help equally distribute the body’s weight, protecting and extending the life surrounding cartilage.
A meniscus can be torn or damaged during any activity that puts pressure on or rotates the knee joint. Younger people are likely to experience sports related traumatic tears. However, as a person ages, the cartilage in the knee becomes weaker and thinner, and is more prone to tears from simple activities of daily living.
Generally, when a meniscus tear occurs, a popping sound is heard around the knee joint. Afterwards, many people experience pain (especially when the area is touched), swelling, difficulty moving the knee or inability to fully move it, a feeling of the knee locking or catching, and a feeling the knee is giving way or unable to support you.
Meniscus tears are actually quite common. In fact, about 700,000 Americans undergo a meniscectomy (meniscus surgery) annually. Many others have the condition and choose not to move forward with surgery. Decades ago the entire meniscus was removed on the belief that it would grow back, and when it didn’t a total replacement was undertaken.
Today, the standard approach is to remove only the torn section of the meniscus through a partial meniscectomy and leave the healthy tissue. The arthroscopic surgery is performed through two small incisions on the knee.
There have been many advances in technology which have progressed to a less invasive surgery resulting in quicker recovery time. However, even with today’s advances, the symptoms go away and the patient has 5-10 years of relief, but the loss of even part of the meniscus can accelerate the onset of arthritis.
A new development of a tissue-engineered meniscus replacement has been announced. It consists of a biodegradable polymer that has been submerged in collagen and hyaluronic acid and weaved into the shape of a meniscus. The sponge-like device is inserted into the knee where it fully dissolves and stimulates the body to rebuild new meniscal tissue naturally.
The dissolvable polymer is strong enough to bear the pressure between the two bones while stimulating the body to grow a new meniscus in its place. The new meniscus is not comprised of scar tissue – rather it is neo-meniscal tissue. For many people with meniscal injuries this would eliminate the need for a future knee replacement.
This technology, which will be marketed under the name “MeniscoFix” is not yet available to the general public. It is scheduled for clinical trials in the next two years and will be commercially available within 5-7 years. This new technology will allow doctors to tailor treatment to the patient’s specific type of tear and employ the least invasive method for the best outcome.